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明晰全要素生产率的三个基本问题

来源:发布者:时间:2019-07-11 17:00:35

中国经济已从高速增长阶段转向高质量发展阶段。有必要促进经济发展质量变化,效率变化和权力变化,有效提高全要素生产率。在这方面,有必要澄清“全面要素生产率是什么,什么是,如何提高”这三个基本问题。

第一个基本问题是“它是什么”。在经济合作与发展组织(OECD)《生产率测算手册》中,全要素生产率被定义为所有投入要素对产出增长的贡献能力。在经济增长领域,全要素生产率是判断经济增长质量和增长潜力的重要标准。提高全要素生产率有三个含义:一是提高全要素生产率指数,二是提高全要素生产率增长率,三是提高全要素生产率对经济增长的贡献率。目前,我们强调的“提高全要素生产率”主要是为了提高全要素生产率对经济增长的贡献率。国际经验表明,经济发展阶段越高,就越需要提高全要素生产率以实现经济增长。目前,中国经济已进入高质量发展阶段,必须深刻认识到现阶段提高全要素生产率的战略意义。

第二个基本问题是“多少钱”。目前,中国全要素生产率及其贡献率的计算结果有很大差异。在这方面,有必要在国家一级对全要素生产率的衡量和释放进行标准化和标准化,并为将来相关计划中的全要素生产率目标的定量制定做好准备。为了实现这一目标,有必要解决全要素生产率“多少”的问题。建议借鉴经合组织《生产率测算手册》,建立一套国家一级全要素生产率衡量标准,既符合国际标准,又符合中国国情。在具体的运营层面,可以先对具有成熟条件的省市进行检测,总结经验,逐步推广。

The third basic question is "how to mention." After mastering the “what is” and “how much” of total factor productivity, it is necessary to take policy measures to solve the problem of “how to mention”. Increasing total factor productivity can be divided into two major paths: technological progress and resource allocation efficiency improvement. Technological progress includes independent innovation and technology introduction. For China, it is mainly to further increase independent research and development, carry out subversive innovation in frontier science and technology fields, and accelerate the transformation of scientific and technological achievements into real productivity. The improvement of resource allocation efficiency can be started from the adjustment of industrial structure and the improvement of resource allocation within the industry. To solve the problem of how to raise the total factor productivity, we can also select several quantifiable indicators that reflect the connotation of total factor productivity but are different from the current GDP orientation. By decomposing the total factor productivity indicators, we form an indicator system. Grasp the hand and better promote the improvement of total factor productivity. (Author: Quantitative Economics Institute of Economics and Technology Chinese Academy of Social Zhucheng Liang Li)

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